Histological examination of the biopsy material reveals exudative-hemorrhagic inflammation.
This type of false insulin hypersensitivity is extremely rare.
The cellular basis of the infiltrate is lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages.
With a small dose of injected insulin, a reverse development begins after a few hours, and with a large dose, after a day or more, the focus undergoes necrosis, followed by scarring.
Treatment of allergic reactions to insulin
A local delayed-type reaction is clinically manifested 6-12 hours after insulin injection by erythema, swelling, burning and induration of the skin at the injection site, reaching a maximum after 24-48 hours.
Delayed-type hypersensitivity is characterized by a high degree of specificity for the administered antigen.
Allergic reactions of the immediate type and the Arthus phenomenon are mediated by humoral immunity, namely, by circulating antibodies of the JgE and JgG classes.
Prescribing prednisone in severe cases
This type of allergic reactions is not associated with antibodies circulating in the blood, but is mediated by the activation of cellular immunity.

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General reactions can be expressed by urticaria, angioedema angioedema, bronchospasm, gastrointestinal disorders, polyarthralgia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, swollen lymph nodes, and tadalafil anaphylactic shock.

In the pathogenesis of the development of systemic generalized allergies to insulin, the leading role belongs to the so-called reagents - class E immunoglobulin antibodies to insulin. If a local or generalized reaction occurs to the administered dose of insulin, the subsequent dose of hormones is reduced.

Lipodystrophy is a focal disorder of cialis and lipolysis that occurs in the subcutaneous tissue at the sites of insulin injection.

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To prevent the development of lipodystrophy, the following rules must be followed

Significant importance in the pathogenesis of lipodystrophy is attached to prolonged traumatization of tissues and branches of peripheral nerves by mechanical, thermal and physicochemical agents. A certain role in the pathogenesis of lipodystrophy is assigned to the development of a local allergic reaction to insulin, and taking into account the fact that lipoatrophy can be observed far from the injection site of insulin, then autoimmune processes.

Alternate insulin injection sites more often and administer it according to a specific pattern

Before injecting insulin, the bottle must be held in your hand for 5-10 minutes to warm up to body temperature (in no case should you inject insulin immediately after removing it from the refrigerator!). After treating the skin with alcohol, it is necessary to wait a while for it to completely evaporate to prevent it from getting under the skin. Use only sharp needles to administer insulin. After the injection, it is necessary to lightly massage the injection site, and if possible, apply heat.



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A local reaction to insulin preparations manifests itself directly at the injection site, usually within 7-14 days from the start of therapy, develops rapidly (1 hour after administration, sometimes within the first day).


It is characterized by hyperemia and swelling of the skin area up to 5 cm in diameter, a burning sensation, itching or pain. Sometimes a papular rash, subcutaneous infiltrates may appear.

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The Arthus phenomenon (aseptic tissue necrosis) rarely develops. In the etiology of immediate type hypersensitivity, the main role belongs to circulating immunoglobulins (antibodies) of classes E and G.

The general reaction to insulin preparations is characterized by the appearance of an urticarial itchy rash, angioedema, bronchospasm, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, multiple arthralgias, changes in the blood (thrombocytopenic purpura, an increase in the number of eosinophils, an increase in lymph nodes), in rare cases, anaphylaxis with the development of shock is observed. Often, a general allergic reaction occurs against the background of an already existing local reaction. However, generalization of the process occurs in approximately 0.1% of the total number of cases of insulin allergy. Medical care for allergic reactions.

The first necessary action in the development of an allergy to any substance is to stop its entry into the patient's body. This is the main difficulty of allergic reactions to insulin, since it is vital and cannot be completely abolished. Instead of cancellation, the patient should be transferred to cialis drug with less immunogenicity. For example, on human insulins with pH values ​​​​in the range of neutral, simple action. For some patients, this is enough to solve the problem of allergies, including those with intolerance to insulin impurities, bovine insulin or low pH insulin. Additionally, antihistamines are prescribed (diphenhydramine, tavegil, diazolin, diprazine), 10% calcium chloride in solution is administered, etc. Also, calcium chloride electrophoresis is recommended in the presence of subcutaneous infiltrates. What treatment to take?

Local forms of allergic reactions may disappear spontaneously within a few weeks. However, if the reaction continues, then the following must be done: Make sure that the patient is performing insulin injections correctly, since a violation of the drug administration technique (violation of storage conditions, subcutaneous administration technique, alcohol ingress into the skin) can also cause allergies.